My country is a country located in the humid tropical monsoon climate zone. This type of climate creates a Vietnam with natural conditions and rich natural resources.
Knowing about the tropical monsoon climate requires a great deal of knowledge. When you know what a tropical climate, you will understand more deeply about the climate of Vietnam.
So, let’s take a closer look at the outstanding features of the tropical monsoon climate.
Main features of the wind tropics
The tropics have a distinctive and prominent climate of the hot zone. Areas with this typical climate are in South Asia and Southeast Asia.
In Southeast Asia, especially my country. Summer winds blow from the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. They bring cool air and heavy rain.
During winter, the wind will go from the Southeast Asian water area, bringing dry and cold air. The further south my country warms up, the east wind blows in waves.
In contrast to the South, the North every time the wind comes. In the northern provinces, the weather will turn cold for a few days, sometimes lasting for weeks. In winter in Hanoi, the temperature sometimes drops to 10 degrees within a few days.
Distinctive feature of the tropics is divided into two intentional features: that is, the temperature and precipitation will always have changes according to the wind season. Therefore, the weather is often quite erratic.
The average annual temperature is above 20 degrees Celsius. While the average annual temperature range is about 8 degrees Celsius. These are very favorable conditions for agriculture, tourism, seafood… to develop stably.
Rainfall: The average annual rainfall is over 1000 mm. However, it varies according to the location near the sea or far from the sea, on the windward or windy mountainside.
Specific example: Lao Cai province in the northwest of my country on the Hoang Lien Son mountain range will usually have high rainfall in the rainy season. However, in the summer, the rainfall is low, but there are still enough trees to grow
The weather in the tropics is often quite erratic. The rainy season has some years to come early, some years to come late. Therefore, there are few years of rainfall and many years of rainfall, then droughts or floods are often born.
Organisms living in tropical environments are diverse and abundant. The seasons in the tropics mainly affect the nature, culture and human life here.
When the amount of rainfall and the distribution of rainfall in the year are highly variable. The vegetation in the tropics also has many significant changes.
In places with heavy rainfall, the forest there will have many layers but will not equal the green jungle all year round; In the forest mainly deciduous trees in the dry season.
In contrast, where there is little rain, it is mainly tropical high grassland. In the estuaries, the coast is alluvial, mainly mangroves. It is a favorable habitat for many different species of animals, both on land and in water.
For example: In the Truong Son mountain range, there will often be a lot of rain. Meanwhile, in estuaries such as Bach Dang, Tra Ly, Len, Lach Gep, Cua Lo… often mangroves develop.
Outstanding features of Vietnam’s climate
My country is one of the countries most strongly affected by the humid tropical monsoon climate.
The tropical nature of the climate is determined by the location of our country in the Northern Tropic of Cancer. Every year, my country receives a large amount of radiation from the sun.
On the other hand, in my country, every place of the year has two times of the sun passing through the zenith.
Therefore, the total radiant temperature is large, together with the year-round positive irradiance balance. That makes the average annual temperature of Vietnam quite high, exceeding the standards of tropical climate.
Specifically: The average annual temperature nationwide is higher than 20 degrees Celsius (except for high mountains) and the total number of sunny hours depending on the place is from 1400 to 3000 hours/year.
About rainfall and humidity
The air masses pass through the East Sea, bringing with them large amounts of air moisture. From there, it brings to my country a large amount of rain, an average of 1500 to 2000mm per year.
In the coastal slopes and high mountain massifs, the average annual rainfall can be up to 3500 – 4000mm. The air humidity is very high and always above 80%, the humidity balance is always positive.
About the monsoon
Because my country is located in the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere. Therefore, there is Tin Phong wind in the Northern hemisphere operating all year round.
On the other hand, my country’s climate is strongly influenced by seasonally active air masses. The monsoon overwhelms the Tin Phong wind, so the Tin Phong wind blows alternately with the monsoon. The impact is most evident in the transition periods between the two monsoons:
Winter monsoon: usually occurs around November to April next year. Northeast monsoon gives birth to a cold winter in my country.
The first half of winter is cold and dry, and the second half of winter is cold and warm. At that time, there will be drizzle in the coastal areas and the plains in the North and North Central.
Summer monsoon: will occur from May to October. At the beginning of summer, the humid air mass blowing from the North Indian Ocean moves in the southwest direction to penetrate directly and cause heavy rain to the plains. in the South and Central Highlands.
When passing through the Truong Son mountain range and the mountains running along the Vietnam – Laos border. Simultaneously spilling down to the coastal plain of Central Vietnam and the southern part of the Northwest region. This air mass will become drier and hotter and in my country, it is called the Lao wind (Thanh Hoa region).
Tin Phong Wind: Active mainly in late summer. As it passes through the equatorial waters, the air mass will heat up. Since then, causing heavy and prolonged rain for windward areas in the South and Central Highlands.
Normally, at this time, both the South and the North will have heavy rain due to the combination of the southwest monsoon and the tropical convergence bands. Due to the low pressure in the North, this air mass moves in the Southeast direction into the North, creating the “Southeast monsoon” in the summer in the North of my country.
Above are some issues related to the salient features of my country’s tropics. Hopefully these sharing will help you understand more about the natural conditions of Vietnam.
In the process of sharing because of limited knowledge and weak grammar. Looking forward to your feedback, thanks!